Monday, December 12, 2005
Sunday, December 11, 2005
On Writing: Contagious Yawning (and celebrity Teeth and Unpopped Popcorn)
The yawning story, which was probably the most interesting one, had to be short for space reasons, so there was a lot I couldn't go into: The scientist I wrote about, Steve Platek, is actually interested in using contagious yawning to study the evolution of human consciousness, which is completely fascinating and at points mind-boggling abstract.
Platek, as the story explains, has found that contagious yawning has to do with empathy: The more empathetic you are, the more likely you are to relate to a yawner and experience a yawn yourself. The way this relates to consciousness is almost counter intuitive: The neural pathways involved in empathy are the same pathways involved in self-awareness, because we empathize with people by tapping into our own experiences. Self-awareness gives us a reference point for empathizing with people: You fall down on the sidewalk and get embarrassed, and I feel embarrassed for you because my brain remembers a time when I felt the same.
Yawning exists in all living creatures: Insects, fish, birds, reptiles, mammals, you name it. But contagious yawning only exists (as far as scientists know) in humans and certain "higher primates" that have been shown to have "empathetic abilities." (Don't get me started on this idea that some animals are self-aware and others aren't -- I have issues with that, but I won't go into it here.) The way Platek sees it, at some point in evolution, certain brains -- specifically those of humans and some primates -- evolved a level of consciousness that allowed them to experience empathy (and therefore contagious yawns), and other brains didn't.
"In trying to understand something like the evolution of the self, of consciousness and empathy," Platek told me, "we need specific tests for it. We can't use Petri dishes and microscopes to see these things, so we have to develop creative ways of looking for evidence that they exist." Which is precisely what contagious yawning is, Platek says. It's a cue that a brain has a level of self-consciousness that makes "empathetic mechanisms" possible.
Platek and I had a great time talking about yawning. When we got to this point in the conversation I said, Wait a minute ... You're saying you can study consciousness by looking at yawning? To which he said, Yep, that's right: "Contagious yawning is a way for science to have a window into understanding the basic neural mechanism that may have given rise to the evolution of consciousness, or what we call the human condition." Then he paused.
"Whoa," I said, "that's heavy."
"I know," he whispered, laughing. "I was just thinking the same thing: It's weird. We were talking about yawning and now I'm talking about consciousness!? But that's where it all came from, so that's what happens. You talk about yawning, you end up at consciousness. "
Who knew studying yawning could be so useful. And there's more: Certain types of brain damage can cause people to suddenly lose their empathethic abilities, so contagious yawning can serve as a test to see if your brain is functioning normally. Yawning is also a very curious (and little understood) side effect of certain drugs -- especially impotence drugs, which has led one researcher to investigate the connection between sexuality and yawning. Then there's scizophrenia (as I mentioned in my last post): Platek uses people with schizophrenicenic tendencies to study contagious yawning -- since schizophreniaenia interferes with empathetic abilities, it can make people immune to contagious yawns.
Clearly, I could go on and on about yawning. And I will with a longer story soon. But until then, I'll end with this: You want evidence that yawning is contagious? Just do a google images search for "yawn" and start looking through the pictures ...
Thursday, December 08, 2005
Of Note: Speaking of schizophrenia (and sex and art)
Daniel Nettle, a psychologist at the University of Newcastle, just published a study showing that people with schizophrenic-like personality traits (and therefore genes predisposing them to schizophrenia) are more likely to do two things: Become artists and have more sexual partners. And this, Nettle believes, is why schizophrenia hasn't vanished as a disease.
Evolutionarilly speaking, it's a bit baffling that scizophrenia hasn't been selected out of the gene pool, since scizophrenics don't tend to reproduce (they may be less able to have children physically, and their challenges relating to others can make it difficult to find mates). But scizophrenic genes don't always cause full-blown schizophrenia: People with a family history of schizophrenia can display varying degrees of scizophrenic-like behaviors (magical or mystical thinking, a decreased or distorted perception of self and others, etc), but not actually be scizophrenic themselves. Nettle believes that when a person's genetic tendency toward schizophrenia leads to creative thinking instead of full-blown schizophrenia, it gives them an evolutionary advantage, because they're more likely to become artists, and artists, he says, are more "sexually successful."
In a survey of 425 British adults, researchers found that serious poets and visual artists generally had more sexual partners than those who were either not artistic or only dabbled in the arts. Further analysis showed that one personality dimension -- a tendency toward "unusual" thoughts and perceptions -- was related to both creativity and sexual success. That tendency is also seen in people with schizophrenia. And the findings, according to the study authors, may help explain why schizophrenia -- a mental disorder that often runs in families -- has not been extinguished from the gene pool ...
It's all very interesting, though not entirely convincing yet: This connection between "unusual mental abilities" and scizophrenic tendencies and art and sex is pretty loose. I buy the claims individually -- that "successful creative types" (which he doesn't define) are "sexually successful," and that people with scizophrenic-like tendencies are likely to become artists (some brilliant artists have suffered from scizophrenia, like Pink Floyd's Syd Barrett, and many others). But it seems like a big jump to say this might explain the persistance of scizophrenia in the gene pool.
Here's something I find curious: Schizophrenic-like personality traits are the center of much non-scizophrenia-related research these days. I just wrote a story for New York Times Magazine's annual Year in Ideas issue (which hits newsstands on December 11th) about a scientist who's found an explanation for why yawning is contagious. He used these same schizophrenic-like traits to uncover the cause of contagious yawning (stay tuned, I'll post that story when it runs in the magazine in a few days) ...